Our ancestors exercised different kinds of labour depending on their physical and creative skills in order to transform elements of the environment for their benefit. As a result, the evolution of work has adapted thanks to the creation of more and more functional tools: Industrial Revolutions and Wars have been major drivers of change, resulting in the improvement of productivity, transportation and the increase of income per capita, as well as changes in population, economy, environment and the incorporation of women into the labour market. However, the evolution of work has also brought negative effects such as pollution, urbanisation, exploitation of labour, greater social inequality and the stratification of new social classes, labour problems, and unemployment, among others.
In the last decade, the use of technological solutions has increased, especially in health, education and the private sector. However, 2020 and 2021 were challenging and unprecedented years. The arrival of COVID-19 made social distancing a rule and a way to survive, while the use of digital tools and technological solutions accelerated simply as a means of keeping up with the demands of work.
However, as we have seen, the intensive use of these tools has led to many unintended secondary effects, including unemployment. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development estimates that 14% of jobs will be replaced completely and 32% will be interrupted by the use of new technologies, generating a global crisis. There are, however, several ways to avoid these alarming losses, including, as one example, an ethic of responsible use regarding artificial intelligence, clear limitations and on the use of artificial intelligence, delimiting the roles that each entity plays in this new society, and adapting workforce development to the current situation.